c CHART
This chart tracks the number of nonconformances per unit.  In addition, this monitors
attribute data where the probability  of an occurrence is very small but the number of
possible instances very large.    EXAMPLE:  Number of accidents reported per day at a service center.

CA
CONDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION

CAA
CLEAN AIR ACT

CAAA
CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS

CAD
COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN

CAE
CENTRE OF ADVANCED ELECTROPLATING

CAER
COMMUNITY AWARENESS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE

CAFE
CORPORATE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY

CAG
CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT GROUP; CITIZENS ADVISORY  GROUP

CAGR
COMPOUND ANNUAL GROWTH RATE

CAM
COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURE

CAMF
CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF METAL FINISHERS

CAMU
CORRECTIVE ACTION MANAGEMENT UNIT

CAP
CAPACITY ASSURANCE PLANS; COMPLIANCE AUDIT  PROGRAM

CAPE
COMPUTER-AIDED PLANT ENGINEERING

CAPE
COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING is a name coined by Peter H. Tremmel
CQE for a series  of LOTUS based programs written specifically for the Metal Finishing
Industry beginning in the 1980's.

CAPP
COMPUTER-AIDED PULSE PLATING

CAR
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS

CAS
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE

CASS
This is a corrosion test, called copper chloride acetic acid salt spray.

CATHODIC TERMINAL
The negatively charged (-) terminal to which racks or barrel loads are attached in the plating tank;
( also called 'CATHODE' ).

CATHODE
The negative electrode in electrolysis in which the parts are plated. The electrode at which positive ions are discharged. In plating, the parts themselves are cathodes.

CATHODE EFFICIENCY
The actual weight of deposit on the part divided by the theoretical weight that should be deposited.

CATHODIC CLEANING
Electrocleaning the part with negative voltage. It is also called direct cleaning. Hydrogen is generated and can cause hydrogen embrittlement.

CAUSTIC POTASH
This is the common name for potassium hydroxide.

CAUSTIC SODA
This is the common name for sodium hydroxide.

CAVITATION
Cavitation is the cleaning action of collapsing bubbles on the surface of a part   when using ultrasonic energy.

CBC
CIRCULATING BED COMBUSTOR

CBEC
CONCENTRATION-BASED EXEMPTION CRITERIA

CBT
COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING

CCAE
COUNCIL OF CHEMICAL ASSOCIATION EXECUTIVES

CCCT
COMPOUND CYCLIC CORROSION TEST

CCE
CATHODE CURRENT EFFICIENCY

CCP
COMPOSITE CORRECTION PROGRAM

CCPS
CENTER FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY (AICHE)

CCR
COUNCIL FOR CHEMICAL RESEARCH

CCWE
CONSTITUENT CONCENTRATION IN A WASTE EXTRACT

CE
CONDITIONAL EXEMPTION

CEA
CERTIFIED ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITOR; COUNCIL OF  ECONOMIC ADVISORS

CEC
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

CEG
CERTIFIED ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST

CEI
CHEMICAL EXPOSURE INDEX; COMPLIANCE EVALUATION  INSPECTION

CEMS
CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS

CEN
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION

CENTRAL TENDENCY
There are three measures of central tendency:  1.)  AVERAGE ( mean ) - the sum of all the measured,
or counted data, divided by the total number of data points.  2.)  MODE - the value repeated most
often in raw data, or in the case of the HISTOGRAM, the most common class interval.
3.)  MEDIAN - the middle of all the measured or counted data points ( if an even number of data
points, the median   will be a fraction ).

CEP
CATALYTIC EXTRACTION PROCESS; CATHODE  ELECTRODEPOSITED PAINT;
CERTIFIED ENVIRONMENTAL  PROFESSIONAL

CEPA
CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT

CEPP
CHEMICAL EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM

CEPRC
CHEMICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND RESPONSE  COMMISSION

CEQ
COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

CERCLA
COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE   COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT (1980)

CERCLIS
COMPREHENSIVE  ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY   COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY SYSTEM

CERES
COALITION FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE  ECONOMIES

CESQG
CONDITIONALLY EXEMPT SMALL QUANTITY GENERATOR

CESQT
CONDITIONALLY EXEMPT SMALL QUANTITY TREATMENT

CESW
CONDITIONALLY EXEMPT SPECIFIED WASTESTREAMS

CET
CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIST; CERTIFIED  ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINER

CFC
CHLOROFLUOROCARBON

CFCC
CONTINUOUS FIBER CERAMIC COMPOSITE

CFD
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

CFGWPP
COMPREHENSIVE STATE GROUND WATER PROTECTION  PROGRAM

CFR
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

CGL
COMPREHENSIVE  GENERAL LIABILITY

CGWP
CERTIFIED GROUND WATER PROFESSIONAL

CHARACTERISTIC
A feature that helps differentiate between individual items in a population.

CHEMTREC
CHEMICAL TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY CENTER (24-  HR NUMBER  800/424-9300)

CHMM
CERTIFIED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGER

CHP
CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

CHRIS
COAST GUARD CHEMICAL HAZARD RESPONSE  INFORMATION SYSTEM

CHROMATE
A chemical film caused by a reaction between plated zinc or cadmium in a solution of activated chromium;
a film of chromium  base or plated metal  and oxide is formed.

CHROMADIZING
The process of dipping aluminum in chromic acid to improve paint adhesion.

CHROMEL ALLOY
A binary alloy consisting of nickel and chromium. A few grades of this alloy contain iron.

CHROMIUM ALLOY
In English, it is called "Stainless Steel". In German, it is called "Rust Free Alloy". In French, it is called "Non-oxidizing Alloy".

CIH
CERTIFIED INDUSTRIAL HYGIENIST

CIM
COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

CIP
CLEAN-IN-PLACE

CLEANING
Normal line-line ELECTROCLEANER either by direct current with parts negative (-)
or by indirect current  with parts positive (+).

CLP
CONTRACT LAB PROGRAM

CLOUD POINT
The temperature at which detergent changes from a clear solution to a cloudy one.

CM
CERTIFIED MANAGER; CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

CMA
CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION

CMC
CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES

CME
COMPREHENSIVE MAINTENANCE EVALUATION

CMF
CENTER FOR MATERIALS FABRICATION

CMS
CORRECTIVE MEASURE STUDY

CMSA
CONSOLIDATED METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS

CMVSA
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY ACT

CN-ATC
CYANIDE AMENABLE TO CHLORINATION

CN-T
TOTAL CYANIDE

CO
CARBON MONOXIDE

COD
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

COLIWASA
CONTAINERIZED LIQUID WASTE SAMPLER

COMMON CAUSE
The source of random  or natural  variation in a process.  Common causes-or
'assignable causes ' as they are   sometimes called-are inherent in the production process itself.

CONC
CONCENTRATION

CONFIDENCE LEVEL
The probability that a given range of values contains the true value of a parameter.

CONFIDENCE LIMITS
The upper and lower boundaries of the confidence interval.

CONSUMER’S RISK
For acceptance sampling the probability that a bad lot will be accepted by a given sample plan.

CONTROL
A term applied to the management of processes indicating that quality requirements
standards  or goals are being met  and that the output of the process is predictable.

CONSTANTAN ALLOY
This alloy contains 45% nickel and 54% copper, used in thermocouples.

CONTACT PLATING
The deposition of metal without the use of current. The parts are barrel-rotated in a bath containing metal ions. As the parts come in contact/impact with the metal ions, they get plated.

CONTROL CHARTS
Control Charts are line graphs specially used to track the trend or performance of an on-going process.
This is accomplished  by observing how the viability within the process causes thetrend line to fluctuate
within a pair of statistically calculated limits.  There are two types of Control Charts:   _  X, R CHART
and X, MOVING RANGE CHART which are VARIABLES CONTROL CHARTS.    p CHART,  np CHART,
c CHART,  and u CHART which are ATTRIBUTE CONTROLS CHART.

CONTROL LIMITS
Control limits, which are statistically derived, are not to be confused with specification limits.
Ideally, control limits are well  within the specifications so there is confidence in the reliability
of the process.  If the specifications are very close to or  within the control limits, then the process
is indicating that it may not be reliable in achieving the customers' needs.

COR
CORROSIVE EFFECTS

CORROSION
Corrosion is a chemical process by which a metal is chemically oxidized and   attacked.

COST ESTIMATION
Cost Estimation is a technique for determining the dollar or currency impact of problems and potential
improvements.  There are two approaches to estimating costs: The 'Bottom Up Approach' and the
'Top-Down Approach.'  It is not  necessary to have a precise and detailed accounting data in order to
get a general idea of the financial impact of a   problem or issue; you need to make some assumptions
and verify them as data is collected.

COULOMB
A electrical charge passing through or plating cell at a current of one ampere for one second.

COULOMETRIC CELL
An electrolytic standard cell arranged in series with a plating cell to measure the actual current flow. From the weight of
the deposits in both cells, the cathode efficiency can be calculated.

COVERING POWER
The ability of plating solution to deposit on very low current density areas. A high throwing power bath ususally
has high covering power.

CPC
CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

CPG
CONTROL TECHNIQUES GUIDELINES

CPG
CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL GEOLOGIST

CPI
CONTINUOUS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT; CHEMICAL  PROCESS INDUSTRIES

CPM
CRITICAL PATH METHOD

CPSC
CONSUMER PRODUCTS SAFETY COMMISSION

CPSS
CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL SOIL SCIENTIST

CQA
CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE

CQC
CONSTRUCTION QUALITY CONTROL

CQE
CERTIFIED QUALITY ENGINEER is a person who has successfully passed
the testing and certification as established  by the American Society of Quality Engineers ( ASQC ).

CRADA
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT  AGREEMENTS

CRP
COMMUNITY RELATIONS PLAN

CSE
CONTROL SYSTEM ENGINEERING

CSG
COUNCIL OF STATE  GOVERNMENTS

CSHO
COMPLIANCE SAFETY AND HEALTH OFFICE

CSI
COMPLIANCE SAMPLING INSPECTION

CSMA
CHEMICAL SPECIALTY MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION

CSO
COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

CSP
CERTIFIED SAFETY PROFESSIONAL; CONTINUOUS STRIP  PRODUCTION

CSSP
CERTIFIED SECURITY AND SAFETY PROFESSIONAL

CTE
COEFFICIENTS OF THERMAL EXPANSION

CTI
CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE

CTMS
COMPUTER CONTROLLED TEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

CUBIC MEASURE
1 728 CUBIC INCHES = 1 CUBIC FOOT    27 CUBIC FEET = 1 CUBIC YARD
128 CUBIC FEET = 1 CORD (WOOD)    40 CUBIC FEET = 1 TON (SHIPPING)
2 150 .42 CUBIC INCHES = 1 STANDARD BU    231 CUBIC INCHES = 1 U S STANDARD GAL
1 CUBIC FEET = ABOUT 4/5  OF A BU

CUM
CUMULATIVE EFFECTS

CURRENT DENSITY
The plating current per unit area being plated. The current density is expressed as ampere per square foot or ampere per square decimeter.

CURRENT EFFICIENCY
The percentage of current actually used in deposition at the cathode or in dissolving the anode. The remaining current generates either hydrogen at the cathode, oxygen at the anode or other side reactions at either electrode.

CV
CONVENTIONAL VEHICLES

CVI
CHEMICAL VAPOR INFILTRATION

CVS
CYCLIC VOLTAMETRIC STRIPPING

CVV
CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

CWA
CLEAN WATER ACT

CWQC
COMPANYWIDE QUALITY CONTROL is an expression used widely in Japan,
CWQC means the application of quality principles to all processes in a company
and the involvement of all employees at all levels in the quality-improvement process.
The concepts of continuos  improvement and customer satisfaction are also embedded
in the approach.  CWQC is the equivalent of 'total quality   management ( TQM )' in the
United States, where the term 'management' has the same meaning as 'control' in  Japan.

CWRT
CENTER FOR WASTE REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

CWTI
CHEMICAL WASTE TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE

CYCLE TIME
The amount of time it takes to complete a particular task.  Shortening the cycle
times of critical functions within a  company is usually a source of competitive
advantage and a key quality-improvement objective.